The heavy industry is divided into the following sections: energy and resources, manufacturing and construction industry, materials and chemicals.
Energy and resources: This complex industry includes all sorts of energies (nuclear energy, fossil fuels, renewable energies such as solar and wind energy) as well as the demand for electricity. The same complexity can be found in the field of resources which includes, among others, the mining industry, raw materials and also waste management. The entire section is of particular importance for the national economy. The high demand for carbon and steel, for instance, is partly responsible for the industrial upturn in Germany during the post-war period.
The manufacturing and construction industry covers the processing of material and further processing of material and products. As a concrete example: The processing of limestone, clay, sand and iron ore into cement is part of the manufacturing industry. The further processing of cement, however, is part of the construction and building industry. The construction/building sector, which is divided into building construction and civil engineering, focuses on the construction of (private and public) buildings and streets.
The industry for materials and chemicals is linked to different scientific and technical fields. It includes elements of applied physics and chemistry. Especially nano-science and nano-technology are currently gaining high attention.